ESIL Interest Group History of International Law

ESIL Interest Group History of International Law

zaterdag 17 februari 2018

BOOK: Taylor ST. JOHN, The Rise of Investor-State Arbitration: Politics, Law, and Unintended Consequences (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018). ISBN 9780198789918. £60.00

Oxford University Press is publishing a book on the creation of the ICSID Convention of 1965 and the origins of the current investor-state dispute settlement regime next month. The book is available for pre-order on the publisher’s website (expected publication date March 8, 2018)


Today, investor-state arbitration embodies the worst fears of those concerned about runaway globalization - a far cry from its framers' intentions. Why did governments create a special legal system in which foreign investors can bring cases directly against states? This book takes readers through the key decisions that created investor-state arbitration, drawing on internal documents from several governments and extensive interviews to illustrate the politics behind this new legal system.
The corporations and law firms that dominate investor-state arbitration today were not present at its creation. In fact, there was almost no lobbying from investors. Nor did powerful states have a strong preference for it. Nor was it created because there was evidence that it facilitates investment - there was no such evidence.

International officials with peacebuilding and development aims drove the rise of investor-state arbitration. This book puts forward a new historical institutionalist explanation to illuminate how the actions of these officials kicked off a process of gradual institutional development. While these officials anticipated many developments, including an enormous caseload from investment treaties, over time this institutional framework they created has been put to new purposes by different actors. Institutions do not determine the purposes to which they may be put, and this book's analysis illustrates how unintended consequences emerge and why institutions persist regardless.



1: International Officials and the Rise of ISDS: A Historical Institutionalist Account

Part I. Creating the Convention

2: Gunboats and Diplomacy: Antecedents of the ICSID Convention
3: Intergovernmental Bargaining: 'The Lowest Common Denominator Was Not Yet Low Enough'
4: Supranational Agenda-Setting: The World Bank's 'Modest Proposal'
5: Intergovernmental Deliberation and Ratification of ICSID

Part II. Eliciting State Consent

6: Layering: How Investor-State Arbitration Was Added to Investment Treaties
7: Conversion: America Embraces Investor-State Arbitration
8: Why is Exit So Hard? Positive Feedback and Institutional Persistence

More information on Oxford University Press' website 
(source: ESLCH Blog)

BOOK: Anna KRUEGER, Die bindung der Dritten Welt an das postkoloniale völkerrecht [Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen recht und völkerrecht] (Berlin: Springer, 2018). ISBN 978-3-662-54413-6, € 89,99.

(Source: Springer)

Springer recently published a book dealing with the debate concerning the bindingness of international law on Third World states in the era of decolonisation.


Das Buch untersucht die völkerrechtshistorische, -theoretische und -praktische Debatte um die Bindung der Dritten Welt an die etablierte Völkerrechtsordung nach der Dekolonialisierung unter besonderer Beachtung herausragender Völkerrechtler in den neuen Staaten wie Ram Prakash Anand, Taslim Olawale Elias, Mohammed Bedjaoui, Abdul Hakim Tabibi und Mustafa Kamil Yasseen. Dabei werden die Arbeiten der Völkerrechtskommission der Vereinten Nationen (ILC) und die sich anschließenden Staatenkonferenzen im Recht der Verträge (WVK) sowie im Recht der Staatennachfolge (WKSV und WKSVAS) aufgearbeitet, welche die Völkerrechtler in der Dritten Welt zur Umsetzung ihres „Globalsolidarischen Projekts“ (Reform der etablierten Völkerrechtsordnung im Interesse der Weltgemeinschaft, Errichtung einer Neuen Weltwirtschaftsordnung) zu nutzen versuchten.


Kapitel 1: Einleitung......................................................   1

Teil I: Die Bestimmungsfaktoren der Bindungsdebatte in der Völkerrechtswissenschaft

Kapitel 2: Die Kolonialisierung als prägendes Moment für die Völkerrechtler in der Dritten Welt ............................   17
Kapitel 3: Die Entstehung der Bindungsdebatte in Folge der Kritik der Völkerrechtler aus der Dritten Welt an der etablierten Völkerrechtsordnung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Kapitel 4: Die Hoffnungen der Völkerrechtler in der Dritten Welt in das Völkerrecht  ...............................................   87

Teil II: Die Bindungsfrage im Recht der Verträge

Kapitel 5: Die völkerrechtliche Debatte um Ungleiche Verträge und die WVK ..............................................  125
Kapitel 6: Unter gewaltsamem Zwang abgeschlossene Verträge in der WVK .................................................  153
Kapitel 7: Andere Normen zur Ächtung Ungleicher Verträge in  der WVK .................................................  199

Teil III: Die Bindungsfrage im Recht der Staatennachfolge

Kapitel 8: Die völkerrechtliche Debatte das um Recht der Staatennachfolge ...........................................  243
Kapitel 9: Territorialregime in der WKSV .........................  279
Kapitel 10: Erworbene Rechte in der WKSVAS ....................  335
Kapitel 11: Schlussbetrachtungen ................................  397

Summary ....................................................  405
Quellenverzeichnis  ............................................  407

More information to be found on the publisher’s website.

(source: ESCLH blog)

maandag 12 februari 2018

BOOK: Tadashi MORI, Origins of the Right of Self-Defence in International Law [International Law in Japanese Perspective] (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2018). ISBN 9789004354975, €154,00.

(Source: Brill Nijhoff)

Brill Nijhoff has published a new book on the history of the right of self-defence in international law.


This book examines a long-standing dispute regarding the prerequisite for the exercise of the right to self-defence and aims to offer a possible better alternatives for interpreting the significance of the precondition provided for in the Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, by taking a historical perspective on the development of that concept from the mid-19th century to 1945. The book defines the right of self-defence as understood in and before 1945, suggesting the typology which represents the strata of the concept. It will contribute to the current debate regarding the right of self-defence in contemporary international law, including that against terrorism, by providing a framework to analyse the state practice since 1945.



List of Abbreviations

Part 1
Re-formation of Perspectives
1 Framework of the Conventional Debate
A Bowett: Three Issues and One General Statement
B Brownlie: Re-formulation of Bowett’s General Statement
C Beyond the Framework of Debate Set by Brownlie
1 Influence of this Framework over Current Arguments
2 Beyond the Consensus Framework

2 Great Confusion over the Right of Self-Defence: The Caroline Incident
A Divisions over the Caroline Incident
B Background to the Divisions: The Necessity Doctrine and the
Self-Defence Doctrine
1 Necessity Doctrine
2 Self-Defence Doctrine
3 Difference in the Function of the Right of Self-Defence
C Differences in the Concepts: Self-preservation Doctrine
1 Self-preservation Doctrine
2 Limits of the Self-preservation Doctrine
D Perspectives

Part 2
Two Distinct Concepts
3 The Right of Self-Defence before World War i
A State Practice
1 Justification for the Violation of the Territory of Another State
2 Justification for the Violation of the Flag-State Jurisdiction of
Another State
B Doctrine
1 Mid-19th Century
2 Late-19th Century and Later
C Policing Concept of the Right of Self-Defence

4 The Right of Self-Defence as it Developed in the Inter-war Period
A The Basic Function of Self-Defence: Resistance to Acts of
1 The Covenant of the League of Nations (1919)
2 The Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
3 Rhineland Pact (Locarno Treaties) (1925)
4 The Pact of Paris (1928)
5 Summary of Section A
B Scope of the Inter-war Right
1 The Problem of Defining Aggression
2 The Existence of Limits: League of Nations Practice 110
3 Vague Boundaries
4 Precursor of Collective Self-Defence, and the Preconditions for Its
C Significance of the Inter-war Period’s Conception of Self-Defence:
Self-Defence as Defensive War

Part 3
The Pre-1945 Right of Self-Defence
5 The Relationship between the Two Conceptions of Self-Defence 141
A Coexistence of the Two Conceptions of the Right of
1 The Pact of Paris and Protection of Nationals Abroad
2 The League of Nations Codification Conference
3 The US-Mexico Mixed Claims Commission
B The Relationship between the Two Conceptions of Self-Defence
1 The Right of Self-Defence in Customary International Law and
Treaty Law
2 Violations of Territory and Resort to War
3 From Outlawry of War to Prohibition of the Use of Force
C ‘Outlawry of War’ and the Two Conceptions of the Right of
6 The Right of Self-Defence in the Travaux Préparatoires of the United
Nations Charter
A Formulation of the Non-use of Force Principle
1 The Formulation Process
2 From the Moscow Declaration to the Dumbarton Oaks
3 Deliberations at the San Francisco Conference
4 Conclusions of Section A
B The Perception of the Right of Self-Defence as Policing
1 Internal Discussions of the us Department of State
2 From Dumbarton Oaks to San Francisco
3 Theoretical Status of the Policing Conception of Self-Defence
C ‘Insertion’ of the Right of Self-Defence as Defensive War
1 From Dumbarton Oaks to San Francisco: The Two Contexts in
Which the Right of Self-Defence was Discussed
2 The Birth of Article 51
3 Collective Self-Defence against Armed Attack and Individual
Self-Defence against Aggression
D The Meaning of the Right of Self-Defence in the Drafting Process of
the un Charter


More information can be found on the publisher’s website.

Source: ESCLH blog.

BOOK: Vincent GENIN, Incarner le droit international. Du mythe juridique au déclassement international de la Belgique (1914-1940) [Enjeux internationaux, 43] (Bruxelles: Peter Lang, 2017), ISBN 9782807606036

(image source: Peter Lang)

Book abstract:
La Guerre de 1914-1918, par son caractère global, ses innovations technologiques, ou encore son degré de violence, marque une étape significative de l’histoire contemporaine. La Belgique, premier pays du front Ouest à être envahi, se situe aux premières loges de cette nouvelle phase historique. La neutralité « perpétuelle, permanente et garantie » de ce territoire est violée, en transgression du droit international public. Ce point d’ancrage semble propice à l’étude d’un milieu ayant peu attiré l’attention des historiens : les juristes belges de droit international. Cette étude est à même de mieux nous informer sur les caractéristiques de ce milieu professionnel en soi, concerné au premier chef par l’acte inaugural de la guerre, sur ses pratiques, ses codes, ses réseaux internationaux, le positionnement des juristes, mais aussi, en négatif, de nous renseigner sur un aspect méconnu de l’image de la Belgique et de sa position dans la hiérarchie internationale, à savoir sa contribution au droit international. L’évolution de ce milieu et de ce qu’il représente, à l’aune de la Guerre de 1914-1918, reconnue pour avoir accéléré la juridicisation des relations internationales, constitue l’essentiel de l’angle d’approche adopté par notre recherche. Ces réflexions nous mènent à la problématique générale de cet ouvrage, que l’on peut énoncer comme suit : dans quelle mesure les juristes belges de droit international public, de 1914 à 1940, ont tissé des réseaux internationaux, ont été des indicateurs de l’évolution de la Belgique dans la hiérarchie internationale et, surtout, ont été influencés par l’expérience de la Guerre de 1914-1918, en tant que génératrice d’une mémoire influant sur les modes d’expressions et de représentations de ce groupe social ?
On the author:
Vincent Genin est Docteur en Histoire et assistant à l’Université de Liège. Spécialisé en histoire des relations internationales (XIXe-XXe s.) et des courants historiques, il est l’auteur d’une cinquantaine d’ouvrages et d’articles. Sa thèse de doctorat – Un "Laboratoire belge" du droit international (1869-1940) – a été distinguée par le Prix Jean-Baptise Duroselle 2017.

More information with the publisher.

zaterdag 10 februari 2018

REMINDER: Lecture and Doctoral Seminar Stephen C. Neff (Edinburgh) (Ghent University, 19 February 2018)

(image source: GRILI)

On Monday 19 February 2018, Stephen C. Neff (Edinburgh) will give a lecture on the Standard of Civilization in International Law and direct a doctoral seminar with PhD-candidates at Ghent University.

Stephen Neff is senior lecturer of international law at the University of Edinburgh. His primary research interest is the history of public international law, including the history of the law of neutrality. Another major interest of his is international human rights law, from both the academic and the practical standpoints. Neff’s publications (Justice in Blue and Gray, Justice Among Nations, The Rights and Duties of Neutrals, War and the Law of Nations) have proven to be landmarks in the field of the history of international law. He is by far the English-speaking authority.

Professor Neff's intervention takes place in the framework of the International Order and Justice Lecture Series, organized by the Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns Institute of International Law (GRILI), in partnership with the Universities of Brussels, Antwerp and Leuven.

The lecture will take place on Monday 19 February 2018 from 13h00-14h30 at Room 1.2 (Paddenhoek), whereas the doctoral seminar is scheduled on the same day from 10h00-11h30 in the Facultaire Raadzaal (Voldersstraat 3). For further questions, please contact Ms. Kristien Ballegeer.

vrijdag 9 februari 2018

BOOK: Jamie TRINIDAD, Self-Determination in Disputed Colonial Territories (Cambridge: CUP, 2018), ISBN 9781108418188, £ 85

(image source: CUP)

Book abstract
Self-Determination in Disputed Colonial Territories addresses the relationship between self-determination and territorial integrity in some of the most difficult decolonization cases in international law. It investigates historical cases, such as Hong Kong and the French and Portuguese territories in India, as well as cases that remain very much alive today, such as the Western Sahara, Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands and the Chagos Islands. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of colonial territories that are, or have been, the subject of adverse third-party claims, invariably by their neighbouring states. Self-Determination in Disputed Colonial Territories takes a contextual, historical approach to mapping the existing law and will be of interest to international lawyers, as well as scholars of international relations and students of the history of decolonization.
On the author:
1. Introduction 2. Territorial integrity and the limits of self-determination: paragraph 6 of the Colonial Declaration 3. Territorial integrity, irredentist claims, and the identification of self-determination Units 4. Is there a 'colonial enclaves' exception to the self-determination rule? 5. Overall conclusions. 
Free excerpt and more information here.

dinsdag 6 februari 2018

CONFERENCE: Latin America and International Law (Hamburg, 8-9 Feb 2018)

(image source: Wikipedia)

The University of Hamburg (Albrecht Mendelssohn Bartholy Graduate School of Law) hosts a conference on Latin America and International Law, announced earlier on this blog.

The program is now available:

Friday February 8

11:30-12:00 Registration
12:15-12:30: Welcome Address
12:30-13:15: Keynote 1: José Manuel Barreto Soler (Catholic University of Colombia)

13:30-15:00: First Panel Session
Panel 1: Colonialism and International Law in the Americas
Alexis Alvarez-Nagakawa: "The Conquest of the (New) World as Picture: Images of the Colo- nial Origins of International Law"
Nikitas Hatzimihail: "The Buffalo in the Room: The Americas in Early Classical Private International Law"
Yolanda Gamarra: "Material and Discursive Reconfiguration of ‘Spanish America’ in International Law"
Panel 2: Latin America and International Law 1
Walter Arévalo, Ricardo Abello-Galvis (Universidad of the Rosario), "The Influence of the Latin American Doctrine on International Law: The Rise of Latin American Doctrines and Principles at The Hague Academy Courses during the Early 20th Century"
Andreas Timmermann (Hamburg): "Hipólito Yrigoyen (1850 – 1933): ‘Krausism’ and International Understanding"
Christopher R. Rossi (University of Iowa): "Burying the Undertaker: The Resilience of Standard of Civilization"

15:30-16:15 Keynote 2: Miloš Vec (University of Vienna)

16:30-18:00: Second Panel Session
Panel 3: Second Scholasticism and Latin America
Ahmed Raza Memon (University of Kent):  "Birth of Network Governance in Vitoria: Territorial Enclaves and the Holy Roman Church"
Michelle Alves Monteiro, Tatiana A.F.R. Cardoso Squeff (Rio Grande do Sul, Pontifica university & Federal University): "The „Paradise Destroyed“ by „the Just War“: A Dialogue between Bartolomé de las Casas and Francisco de Vitoria in the Concealment of Latin American Natives by European Colonizers"
Stefano Cattelan: "Iberian Mare Clausum policies in the Americas"

Panel 4: Latin America and International Law II
Tania Ixchel Atilano (Humboldt Universität Berlin): "The Crime of „Violations of the Duties to Humanity“ in the 1871 Mexican Criminal Code; an Example of Incorporating International Law in Mexico"
Rodrigo Géspedes (MPI for Social Anthropology): "On Wars and Revolutions: The Chilean Contribution to Modern International Law"
Ulrich Mücke (Hamburg): "International Law and the Abolition of Slavery in Nine- teenth-Century Brazil"

Friday February 9

09-09:45 Keynote 3: Liliana Obregón (University of the Andes)

10:00-11:30 Third Panel Session
Panel 5: Latin America and its Independence
Nicolás Carrillo-Santarelli (La Sabana University), "Doctrinal and Diplomatic Efforts of the Latin American Republics to Legitimise their Independence in the 19th Century"
Edward Martin (Hamburg): "Contextualising Haitian Indepen- dence"
Alexandra Téllez (Frankfurt): "Francisco de Miranda and his Contributions to International Law"

Panel 6: Arbitration and Investment Treaties
Henrique Lenon (Federal University of Paraiba, University Centre of João Pessoa), "The missing epitácio pessoa: A new historical approach to Latin American Resistance to Invest- ment Arbitration"
Javier García Olmedo (Max Planck Institute Luxembourg for International, European and Regulatory Procedural Law), "International Investment Law and Latin America: Perpetuating Colonial Economic Relations th- rough Unequal Treaties"
Gustavo Preito (University of Verona), "Mixed Claims Commissions and International Law in Latin Ame- rica: Adjudicating ‚Investment‘ Disputes in the 19th and 20th Century"

11:30-12:00 Break

12:00-13:30 Fourth Panel Session
Panel 7: A Latin American Doctrine of International Law?
Samira Allioui (Strasbourg): "The Discussion on the Existence of an Independent Sphere of International Law: International Law in Latin America or Latin American International Law?"
Nina Keller-Kemmerer (Frankfurt): "The Mimicry of International Law: Andrés Bello‘s „Principios de derecho internacional"
Aiko Nakai (Kyoto): "To seek the Basis of Regional International Law: The Concep- tions of American International Law by 19th Century‘s Latin American Thinkers"

Panel 8: Adjudication
Alan Nissel (Dudley Lotus LLP, Wilshire Skyline): "The US Professionalization of International Arbitration in Latin America (1870 - 1900)"
Fabia Fernandes Veçoso (Melbourne): "Intervention, Sovereign Debt, and the Making of Spatial Order: Revisiting the 1902 - 1903 Venezuelan Blockade"
Jean Rodrigo Ribeiro de Pontes (State University of Rio de Janeiro): "Brazil and the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice"

13:30-14:00 Lunch Break

14:00-15:15 Keynote 4: Ingacio de la Rasilla del Moral (Brunel University London)

15:30-17:00 Fifth Panel Session
Panel 9: Latin American International Law and Natural Ressources
Lucas Lixinski, Mats Ingulstad (UNSW Sydney, Norwegian University of Science and Technology), "Displacing Beginnings and Undermining Revolutionary Achievements: The Making of Perma- nent Sovereignty over Natural Resources in the Americas"
Petra Gümplová (Max Weber Kolleg, University of Erfurt), "Right of Conquest and the Origin of Territorial Sovereignty over Natural Resources - The Case of the Spanish Empire"

Panel 10: Developments in International Law after 1945
Victor Ventura (University of Hamburg) "Latin American Territorialism in the Law of the Sea: A Disservice to the Ocean Rule of Law? The Brazilian State Practice"
Maria Victoria Cabrera (University Espiritu Santo Ecuador), "International Law on Indigenous Peoples: Latin America as a Leader - but with few Followers"
Daniel R. Quiroga-Villamarín (University of the Andes), "An Atmosphere of Genuine So- lidarity and Brotherhood: Development, Catholicism, and the Latin American Contribution to Social Rights"

More information with Matthias Packeiser ( or at the conference website.